A Phrase Expressing The Aim Of A Group Or Party (2023)

(Redirected from Blood and Soil)

A Phrase Expressing The Aim Of A Group Or Party (1)

Noun A phrase expressing the aims or nature of an enterprise, organization, or candidate; a motto. Noun A phrase used repeatedly, as in advertising or promotion. Noun A battle cry of a Scottish clan. Related Questions More Answers Below. This type of plan is both broad in scope and long-term, usually at least 3-5 years, and sometimes 10, 20, or even 50 years in the future. Key components of such a plan are:. the mission or purpose of the group - what business they are in.

Logo of the Reich Ministry of Food and Agriculture [de], and the Blood and Soil ideology

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Blood and soil (German: Blut und Boden) is a nationalist slogan expressing Nazi Germany's ideal of a 'racially' defined national body ('blood') united with a settlement area ('soil'). By it, rural and farm life forms are not only idealized as a counterweight to urban ones, but they are also associated with an imaginary and sedentary Germanic-Nordic peasantry which is placed in opposition to an anti-Semitic trope of Jewishnomadism. It is tied to the contemporaneous German concept of Lebensraum, the belief that the German people needed to reclaim historically German areas of Eastern Europe into which they could expand.

'Blood and soil' was a key slogan of National Socialist (Nazi) ideology. The nationalist ideology of the Artaman League and the writings of Richard Walther Darré guided agricultural policies which were later adopted by Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler and Baldur von Schirach.

  • 3Nazi implementation
  • 4Influence on art

Rise[edit]

The German expression was coined in the late 19th century, in tracts espousing racialism/racism and romantic nationalism. It produced a regionalist literature, with some social criticism.[1] This romantic attachment was widespread prior to the rise of the Nazis.[2] Major figures in 19th-century German agrarian romanticism included Ernst Moritz Arndt and Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl, who argued that the peasantry represented the foundation of the German people and conservatism.[3]

Ultranationalists predating the Nazis often supported country living as more healthy, with the Artaman League sending urban children to the countryside to work in part in hopes of transforming them into Wehrbauern (lit. 'soldier peasants').[4]

Richard Walther Darré popularized the phrase at the time of the rise of Nazi Germany; he wrote a book called Neuadel aus Blut und Boden (A New Nobility Based On Blood And Soil) in 1930, which proposed a systematic eugenics program, arguing for selective breeding as a cure-all for the problems plaguing the state.[5] In 1928, he had also written the book Peasantry as the Life Source of the Nordic Race, in which he presented his theory that the alleged difference between Nordic people and Southeastern Europeans was based in the Nordic people’s connection to superior land.[6] Darré was an influential member of the Nazi Party and a noted race theorist who assisted the party greatly in gaining support among common Germans outside the cities. Prior to their ascension to power, Nazis called for a return from the cities to the countryside.[7] This agrarian sentiment allowed opposition to both the middle class and the aristocracy, and presented the farmer as a superior figure beside the moral swamp of the city (and thus gentile Germans as superior to Jews).[8]

Nazi ideology[edit]

Richard Walther Darré addressing a meeting of the farming community in Goslar on 13 December 1937 standing in front of a Reichsadler and Swastika crossed with a sword and wheat sheaf labelled Blood and Soil (from the German Federal Archive)

The doctrine not only called for a 'back to the land' approach and re-adoption of 'rural values'; it held that German land was bound, perhaps mystically, to German blood.[9] Peasants were the Nazi cultural heroes, who held charge of German racial stock and German history—as when a memorial of a medieval peasant uprising was the occasion for a speech by Darré praising them as force and purifier of German history.[10] Agrarianism was asserted as the only way to truly understand the 'natural order.'[11] Urban culture was decried as a weakness, 'asphalt culture,' that only the Führer's will could eliminate — sometimes, as a code for Jewish influence.[12] (The fact that Christian governments had banned Jews from owning land for centuries throughout Europe not being mentioned as a crucial historical motivation for Jewish concentration in urban areas.)

It contributed to the Nazi ideal of a woman: a sturdy, Christian peasant, who worked the land and bore strong children, contributing to praise for athletic women tanned by outdoor work.[13] That country women gave birth to more children than city ones was also a factor in the support.[14]

Carl Schmitt argued that a people would develop laws appropriate to its 'blood and soil' because authenticity required loyalty to the Volk over abstract universals.[15]

Neues Volk displayed anti-Semitic demographic charts to deplore the alleged destruction of Aryan families' farmland and claim that the Jews were eradicating traditional German peasantry.[16] Posters for schools depicted the flight of people from the countryside to the city.[17] The German National Catechism, German propaganda widely used in schools, also spun tales of how farmers supposedly lost ancestral lands and had to move to the city, with all its demoralizing effects:[18]

Nazi implementation[edit]

The program received far more ideological and propaganda support than concrete changes.[19] When Gottfried Feder tried to settle workers in villages about decentralized factories, generals and Junkers successfully opposed him.[20] Generals objected because it interfered with rearmament, and Junkers because it would prevent their exploiting their estates for the international market.[21] It would also require the breakup of Junker estates for independent farmers, which was not implemented.[7]

The Reichserbhofgesetz, the State Hereditary Farm Law of 1933, implemented this ideology, stating that its aim was to: 'preserve the farming community as the blood-source of the German people' (Das Bauerntum als Blutquelle des deutschen Volkes erhalten). Selected lands were declared hereditary and could not be mortgaged or alienated, and only these farmers were entitled to call themselves Bauern or 'farmer peasant', a term the Nazis attempted to refurbish from a neutral or even pejorative to a positive term.[22] Regional custom was only allowed to decide whether the eldest or the youngest son was to be the heir. In areas where no particular custom prevailed, the youngest son was to be the heir.[23][24][25][26] Still, the eldest son inherited the farm, in most cases, during the Nazi era[27] Priority was given to the patriline, so that, if there were no sons, the brothers and brothers' sons of the deceased peasant had precedence over the peasant's own daughters. The countryside was also regarded as the best place to raise infantry, and as having an organic harmony between landowner and peasant, unlike the 'race chaos' of the industrial cities.[28] It also prevented Jews from farming: 'Only those of German blood may be farmers.'[29]

The concept was a factor in the requirement of a year of land service for members of Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls.[30] This period of compulsory service was required after completion of a student's basic education, before he or she could engage in advanced studies or become employed. Although working on a farm was not the only approved form of service, it was a common one; the aim was to bring young people back from the cities, in the hope that they would, then, stay 'on the land'.[31] In 1942, 600,000 boys and 1.4 million girls were sent to help bringing in the harvest.[citation needed] The concept was one of the reasons for the creation of the Reich Harvest Thanksgiving Festival whose main purpose was the recognition of the achievements of the German farmers (as well as the propagation of nationalist, anti-Semitic ideologies).

Lebensraum[edit]

Origin of German colonisers in annexed Polish territories. Was set in action 'Heim ins Reich'

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Blood and soil was one of the foundations of the concept of Lebensraum, 'living space'.[9] By expanding eastward and transforming those lands into breadbaskets, another blockade, such as that of World War I, would not cause massive food shortages, as that one had, a factor that aided the resonance of 'Blood and soil' for the German population.[32] Even Alfred Rosenberg, not hostile to the Slavs as such, regarded their removal from this land, where Germans had once lived, as necessary because of the unity of blood and soil.[2]Mein Kampf prescribed as the unvarying aim of foreign policy the necessity of obtaining land and soil for the German people (again, 'German people' defined by the Nazi Party as Christian Aryans).[33]

While discussing the question of Lebensraum to the east, Hitler envisioned a Ukrainian 'breadbasket' and expressed particular hostility to its 'Russian' cities as hotbeds of Russianness and Communism, forbidding Germans to live in them and declaring that they should be destroyed in the war.[34] Even during the war itself, Hitler gave orders that Leningrad was to be razed with no consideration given for the survival and feeding of its population.[35] This also called for industry to die off in these regions.[36] The Wehrbauer, or soldier-peasants, who were to settle there were not to marry townswomen, but only peasant women who had not lived in towns.[1] This would also encourage large families.[37]

Furthermore, this land, held by 'tough peasant races', would serve as a bulwark against attack from Asia.[38]

Influence on art[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Prior to the Nazi take-over, two popular genres were the Heimat-Roman, or regional novel, and Schollen-Roman, or novel of the soil, which was also known as Blut-und-Boden.[39] This literature was vastly increased, the term being contracted into a slogan 'Blu-Bo', and developed a mysticism of unity.[1] It also combined war literature with the figure of the soldier-peasant, uncontaminated by the city.[1] These books were generally set in the nominal past, but their invocation of the passing of the seasons often gave them an air of timelessness.[40] 'Blood and soil' novels and theater celebrated the (Christian, Aryan) farmer's life and their fertility, often mystically linking them.[41]

One of the anti-Semitic fabrications in the children's book Der Giftpilz was the claim that the Talmud described farming as the most lowly of occupations.[42] It also included an account of a Jewish financier forcing a German to sell his farm as seen by a neighbor boy; deeply distressed, the boy resolved never to let a Jew into his house, for which his father praised him, on the grounds that peasants must remember that Jews will always take their land.[43]

Fine art[edit]

During the Nazi period in Germany, one of the charges put forward against certain works of art was that 'Art must not be isolated from blood and soil.'[44] Failure to meet this standard resulted in the attachment of the label, 'degenerate art', to offending pieces. In Nazi art, both landscape paintings and figures reflected blood-and-soil ideology.[45] Indeed, some Nazi art exhibits were explicitly titled 'Blood and Soil'.[46] Artists frequently gave otherwise apolitical paintings such titles as 'German Land' or 'German Oak'.[47] Rural themes were heavily favored in painting.[48]Landscape paintings were featured most heavily in the Greater German Art Exhibitions.[49] While drawing on German romantic traditions, painted landscapes were expected to be firmly based on real landscapes, the German people's Lebensraum, without religious overtones (other than the implicit suggestion that 'the German people' excluded German Jews).[50] Peasants were also popular images, promoting a simple life in harmony with nature.[51] This art showed no sign of the mechanization of farm work.[52] The farmer labored by hand, with effort and struggle.[53]

The acceptance of this art by the peasant family was also regarded as an important element.[54]

Film[edit]

Under Richard Walther Darré, The Staff Office of Agriculture produced the alleged documentary (propaganda film) Blut und Boden, which was displayed at Nazi party meetings as well as in public cinemas throughout Germany. Other Blut und Boden films likewise stressed the commonality of Germanness and the countryside.[55]Die goldene Stadt has the heroine running away to the city, resulting in her pregnancy and abandonment; she drowns herself, and her last words beg her father to forgive her for not loving the countryside as he did.[56] The film Ewiger Wald (The Eternal Forest) depicted the forest as being beyond the vicissitudes of history, and the German people the same because they were rooted in the story; it depicted the forest sheltering ancient (white, Aryan) Germans, Arminius, and the Teutonic Knights, facing the peasants wars, being chopped up by war and industry, and being humiliated by occupation with black soldiers, but culminated in a neo-pagan May Day celebration.[57] In Die Reise nach Tilsit, the Polish seductress is portrayed as an obvious product of 'asphalt culture,' but the virtuous German wife is a country dweller in traditional costume.[58] Many other commercial films of the Nazi era featured gratuitous, lingering shots of the Nazi landscape and idealized Aryan couples.[59]

Japanese usage[edit]

An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus made extensive use of the term, usually in quotation marks, and showing an extensive debt to the Nazi usage.[60]

Modern use[edit]

North American white supremacists, white nationalists, Neo-Nazis and members of the alt-right have adopted the slogan. It gained widespread public prominence as a result of the August 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, when participants carrying torches marched on the University of Virginia campus on the night of 11 August 2017 and were recorded chanting the slogan, among others.[61] The rally was organized to protest the town's planned removal of a statue of Robert E. Lee.[62] The rally remained in national news through December 2018 thanks to the trial of James Alex Field, a white supremacist who purposefully ran his car into a crowd of counter-protestors, killing 32-year old paralegal Heather Heyer. [63] The chant was also heard in October 2017 at the 'White Lives Matter' rally in Shelbyville, Tennessee.[64]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

A Phrase Expressing The Aim Of A Group Or Party (2)

  1. ^ abcdPierre Aycoberry The Nazi Question, p8 Pantheon Books New York 1981
  2. ^ abRobert Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology p165 ISBN0-396-06577-5. Marie-Luise Heuser, Was Grün begann endete blutigrot. Von der Naturromantik zu den Reagrarisierungs- und Entvölkerungsplänen der SA und SS, in: Dieter Hassenpflug (Hrsg.), Industrialismus und Ökoromantik. Geschichte und Perspektiven der Ökologisierung, Wiesbaden 1991, S. 43-62, ISBN3-8244-4077-6.
  3. ^Paul Brassley, Yves Segers, Leen Van Van Molle (ed.) (2012). War, Agriculture, and Food: Rural Europe from the 1930s to the 1950s. p. 197. Routledge, ISBN0-415-52216-1
  4. ^Heather Pringle, The Master Plan: Himmler's Scholars and the Holocaust, p39 ISBN0-7868-6886-4
  5. ^Barbara Miller Lane, Leila J. Rupp, Nazi Ideology Before 1933: A Documentation p. 110-1 ISBN0-292-75512-0
  6. ^Gustavo Corni, “Richard Walther Darré: The Blood and Soil Ideologue,” in Ronald Smelser and Rainer Zitelman, eds., The Nazi Elite (New York: New York University Press, 1993), 19.
  7. ^ abRichard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 151, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  8. ^David Schoenbaum, Hitler's Social Revolution: Class and Status in Nazi Germany, 1933-1939, p 161-2 Garden City, NY Doubleday, 1966.
  9. ^ ab'Blood & Soil: Blut und Boden[permanent dead link]'
  10. ^George Lachmann Mosse, Nazi culture: intellectual, cultural and social life in the Third Reich p. 134 ISBN978-0-299-19304-1
  11. ^'Not Empty Phrases, but Rather ClarityArchived 2011-09-29 at the Wayback Machine'
  12. ^Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p 59 ISBN0-674-01172-4
  13. ^Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for war, p45-6, ISBN0-691-04649-2OCLC3379930
  14. ^Richard Bessel, Nazism and War, p 61 ISBN0-679-64094-0
  15. ^Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p 60 ISBN0-674-01172-4
  16. ^Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, p 119 ISBN0-674-01172-4
  17. ^'Nazi Racial School ChartsArchived 2011-07-16 at Wikiwix'
  18. ^'Nazi anti-Semitic CatechismArchived 2011-06-08 at the Wayback Machine'
  19. ^Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 153, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  20. ^Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 153-4, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  21. ^Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 154, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  22. ^Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 156-7, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  23. ^webmaster@verfassungen.de. 'Reichserbhofgesetz (1933)'. www.verfassungen.de. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  24. ^Nationalsozialistische Agrarpolitik und Bauernalltag Written by Daniela Münkel, p. 116, at Google Books
  25. ^Galbraith, J. K. (1939). 'Hereditary Land in the Third Reich'. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 53 (3): 465. doi:10.2307/1884418. JSTOR1884418.
  26. ^Der praktische Nutzen der Rechtsgeschichte: Hans Hattenhauer zum 8 ... written by Jörn Eckert, Hans Hattenhauer, p. 326, at Google Books
  27. ^German Law and Legislation https://archive.org/stream/GermanLawAndLegislation_762/GermanLawAndLegislation_djvu.txt
  28. ^Robert Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology p166 ISBN0-396-06577-5
  29. ^Bytwerk, Randall. 'Hitler Youth Handbook'. www.calvin.edu. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  30. ^Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 159-60, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  31. ^Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p 110-1 ISBN0-679-77663-X
  32. ^Richard Bessel, Nazism and War, p 60 ISBN0-679-64094-0
  33. ^Andrew RobertsThe Storm of War, p 144 ISBN978-0-06-122859-9
  34. ^Karel C. Berkhoff, Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule p35-6 ISBN0-674-01313-1
  35. ^Edwin P. Hoyt, Hitler's War p187 ISBN0-07-030622-2
  36. ^Karel C. Berkhoff, Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule p45 ISBN0-674-01313-1
  37. ^Gerhard L. Weinberg, Visions of Victory: The Hopes of Eight World War II Leaders p 23 ISBN0-521-85254-4
  38. ^Michael Sontheimer, 'When We Finish, Nobody Is Left AliveArchived 2012-05-09 at the Wayback Machine' 05/27/2011 Spiegel
  39. ^Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 351, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  40. ^Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 351-2, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  41. ^Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 366-7, ISBN0-03-076435-1
  42. ^'What is the Talmud?Archived 2011-05-14 at the Wayback Machine'
  43. ^'How a German Peasant Was Driven from House and FarmArchived 2010-10-20 at the Wayback Machine'
  44. ^Peter Adam, Art of the Third Reich, p. 67 ISBN0-8109-1912-5
  45. ^The Greater German Art ExhibitionsArchived 2010-01-31 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^Peter Adam, Art of the Third Reich, p. 66 ISBN0-8109-1912-5
  47. ^Peter Adam, Art of the Third Reich, p. 109 ISBN0-8109-1912-5
  48. ^Peter Adam, Art of the Third Reich, p. 111 ISBN0-8109-1912-5
  49. ^Frederic Spotts, Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics, p 176 ISBN1-58567-345-5
  50. ^Peter Adam, Art of the Third Reich, p. 130 ISBN0-8109-1912-5
  51. ^Peter Adam, Art of the Third Reich, p. 132 ISBN0-8109-1912-5
  52. ^Peter Adam, Art of the Third Reich, p. 133 ISBN0-8109-1912-5
  53. ^Peter Adam, Art of the Third Reich, p. 134 ISBN0-8109-1912-5
  54. ^George Lachmann Mosse, Nazi culture: intellectual, cultural and social life in the Third Reich p. 137 ISBN978-0-299-19304-1
  55. ^Cinzia Romani, Tainted Goddesses: Female Film Stars of the Third Reich p. 11 ISBN0-9627613-1-1
  56. ^Cinzia Romani, Tainted Goddesses: Female Film Stars of the Third Reich p86 ISBN0-9627613-1-1
  57. ^Pierre Aycoberry The Nazi Question, p11 Pantheon Books New York 1981
  58. ^Cinzia Romani, Tainted Goddesses: Female Film Stars of the Third Reich pp. 84-86 ISBN0-9627613-1-1
  59. ^David Welch, Propaganda and the German Cinema, 1933-1945 (London: I.B. Tauris Publishers, 1983), 84.
  60. ^John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race & Power in the Pacific War p. 265 ISBN0-394-50030-X
  61. ^CNN, Meg Wagner. ''Blood and soil': Protesters chant Nazi slogan in Charlottesville'. CNN.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-13. Retrieved 2017-08-14.
  62. ^Hansen, Lauren. '48 hours in Charlottesville: A visual timeline of Charlottesville's harrowing weekend of violence'. THE WEEK. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  63. ^James, Mike (7 December 2018). 'Neo-Nazi convicted of murder in Charlottesville car assault that killed Heather Heyer'. USA Today. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  64. ^Tamburin, Adam; Wadhwani, Anita (28 October 2017). 'Murfreesboro rally canceled as counterprotesters outnumber White Lives Matter activists'. The Tennessean. Retrieved 29 October 2017.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Blood and Soil.

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Boy building a model airplane, Texas, 1942 (photograph by Arthur Rothstein for the Farm Security Administration)

'Do it yourself' ('DIY') is the method of building, modifying, or repairing things without the direct aid of experts or professionals. Academic research describes DIY as behaviors where 'individuals engage raw and semi-raw materials and parts to produce, transform, or reconstruct material possessions, including those drawn from the natural environment (e.g., landscaping)'.[1] DIY behavior can be triggered by various motivations previously categorized as marketplace motivations (economic benefits, lack of product availability, lack of product quality, need for customization), and identity enhancement (craftsmanship, empowerment, community seeking, uniqueness).[2]

The term 'do-it-yourself' has been associated with consumers since at least 1912 primarily in the domain of home improvement and maintenance activities.[3] The phrase 'do it yourself' had come into common usage (in standard English) by the 1950s,[4] in reference to the emergence of a trend of people undertaking home improvement and various other small craft and construction projects as both a creative-recreational and cost-saving activity.

Subsequently, the term DIY has taken on a broader meaning that covers a wide range of skill sets. DIY is associated with the international alternative rock, punk rock, and indie rock music scenes, indymedia networks, pirate radio stations, and the zine community. In this context, DIY is related to the Arts and Crafts movement, in that it offers an alternative to modern consumer culture's emphasis on relying on others to satisfy needs. It has also become prevalent in the personal finance. When investing in the stock one can utilize a professional advisor or partake in do-it-yourself investing.

History[edit]

Italian archaeologists unearthed the ruins of a 6th-century BC Greek structure in southern Italy that came with detailed assembly instructions and is being called an 'ancient IKEA building'. The structure was a temple-like building discovered at Torre Satriano, near the southern city of Potenza, in Basilicata, a region where local people mingled with Greeks who settled along the southern coast known as Magna Graecia and in Sicily from the 8th century BC onwards. Professor Christopher Smith, director of the British School at Rome, said that the discovery was 'the clearest example yet found of mason's marks of the time. It looks as if someone was instructing others how to mass-produce components and put them together in this way'. Much like the instruction booklets, various sections of the luxury building were inscribed with coded symbols showing how the pieces slotted together. The characteristics of these inscriptions indicate they date back to around the 6th century BC, which tallies with the architectural evidence suggested by the decoration. The building was built by Greek artisans coming from the Spartan colony of Taranto in Apulia.[5][6][7]

In North America, there was a DIY magazine publishing niche in the first half of the twentieth century. Magazines such as Popular Mechanics (founded in 1902) and Mechanix Illustrated (founded in 1928) offered a way for readers to keep current on useful practical skills, techniques, tools, and materials. As many readers lived in rural or semi-rural regions, initially much of the material related to their needs on the farm or in a small town.

Home improvement[edit]

Shelves attached to a toy vehicle

The DIY movement is a re-introduction (often to urban and suburban dwellers) of the old pattern of personal involvement and use of skills in the upkeep of a house or apartment, making clothes; maintenance of cars, computers, websites; or any material aspect of living. The philosopher Alan Watts (from the 'Houseboat Summit' panel discussion in a 1967 edition of the San Francisco Oracle) reflected a growing sentiment:

Our educational system, in its entirety, does nothing to give us any kind of material competence. In other words, we don't learn how to cook, how to make clothes, how to build houses, how to make love, or to do any of the absolutely fundamental things of life. The whole education that we get for our children in school is entirely in terms of abstractions. It trains you to be an insurance salesman or a bureaucrat, or some kind of cerebral character.[8]

In the 1970s, DIY spread through the North American population of college- and recent-college-graduate age groups. In part, this movement involved the renovation of affordable, rundown older homes. But it also related to various projects expressing the social and environmental vision of the 1960s and early 1970s. The young visionary Stewart Brand, working with friends and family, and initially using the most basic of typesetting and page-layout tools, published the first edition of The Whole Earth Catalog (subtitled Access to Tools) in late 1968.

Fiberglass dome house, California, in style of the Whole Earth Catalog building techniques

The first Catalog, and its successors, used a broad definition of the term 'tools'. There were informational tools, such as books (often technical in nature), professional journals, courses, classes, and the like. There were specialized, designed items, such as carpenters' and masons' tools, garden tools, welding equipment, chainsaws, fiberglass materials and so on — even early personal computers. The designer J. Baldwin acted as editor to include such items, writing many of the reviews. The Catalog's publication both emerged from and spurred the great wave of experimentalism, convention-breaking, and do-it-yourself attitude of the late 1960s. Often copied, the Catalog appealed to a wide cross-section of people in North America and had a broad influence.

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DIY home improvement books burgeoned in the 1970s, first created as collections of magazine articles. An early, extensive line of DIY how-to books was created by Sunset Books, based upon previously published articles from their magazine, Sunset, based in California. Time-Life, Better Homes and Gardens, Balcony Garden Web and other publishers soon followed suit.

Electronics World 1959, home assembled amplifier

In the mid-1990s, DIY home-improvement content began to find its way onto the World Wide Web. HouseNet was the earliest bulletin-board style site where users could share information. HomeTips.com, established in early 1995, was among the first Web-based sites to deliver free extensive DIY home-improvement content created by expert authors.[citation needed] Since the late 1990s, DIY has exploded on the Web through thousands of sites.

In the 1970s, when home video (VCRs) came along, DIY instructors quickly grasped its potential for demonstrating processes by audio-visual means. In 1979, the PBS television series This Old House, starring Bob Vila, premiered and this spurred a DIY television revolution. The show was immensely popular, educating people on how to improve their living conditions (and the value of their house) without the expense of paying someone else to do (as much of) the work. In 1994, the HGTV Network cable television channel was launched in the United States and Canada, followed in 1999 by the DIY Network cable television channel. Both were launched to appeal to the growing percentage of North Americans interested in DIY topics, from home improvement to knitting. Such channels have multiple shows showing how to stretch one's budget to achieve professional-looking results (Design Cents, Design on a Dime, etc.) while doing the work yourself. Toolbelt Diva specifically caters to female DIYers.

Beyond magazines and television, the scope of home improvement DIY continues to grow online where most mainstream media outlets now have extensive DIY-focused informational websites such as This Old House, Martha Stewart, Hometalk, and the DIY Network. These are often extensions of their magazine or television brand. The growth of independent online DIY resources is also spiking.[9] The number of homeowners who blog about their experiences continues to grow, along with DIY websites from smaller organizations.

Fashion[edit]

Mennonite farmer's wife dressmaking (1942)

DIY amongst the fashion community is popular, with ideas being shared on social media such as YouTube about clothing, jewellery, makeup and hair styles. Techniques include distressing jeans, bleaching jeans, redesigning an old shirt, and studding denim.

The concept of DIY has also emerged within the art and design community. The terms, Hacktivist, Craftivist, or maker have been used to describe creatives working within a DIY framework (Busch). Otto von Busch describes Hacktivism' as '[including] the participant in the process of making, [to give] rise to new attitudes within the ‘maker’ or collaborator” (Busch 49) [10]. Busch suggests that by engaging in participatory forms of fashion, consumers are able step away from the idea of 'mass-homogenized “Mc-Fashion” (Lee 2003)'., as fashion Hacktivism allows consumers to play a more active role in engaging with the clothes they wear (Busch 32).

Subculture[edit]

The terms 'DIY' and 'do-it-yourself' are also used to describe:

Zines, London

  • Self-publishing books, zines, and alternative comics
  • Bands or solo artists releasing their music on self-funded record labels.
  • Trading of mixtapes as part of cassette culture
  • Homemade stuffs based on the principles of 'Recycle, Reuse & Reduce' (the 3R's). A common term in many Environmental movements encouraging people to reuse old, used objects found in their homes and to recycle simple materials like paper.
  • Crafts such as knitting, crochet, sewing, handmade jewelry, ceramics
  • Designing business cards, invitations and so on
  • Creating punk or indie musical merchandise through the use of recyclingthrift store or discarded materials, usually decorated with art applied by silk screen.[11]
  • Independent game development and game modding
  • Contemporary roller derby
  • Skateparks built by skateboarders without paid professional assistance
  • Building musical electronic circuits such as the Atari Punk Console and create circuit bending noise machines from old children toys.
  • Modifying ('mod'ing') common products to allow extended or unintended uses, commonly referred to by the internet term, 'life-hacking'. Related to jury-rigging i.e. sloppy/ unlikely mods
  • DIY electronics like littleBits
  • DIY science: using open-source hardware to make scientific equipment to conduct citizen science or simply low-cost traditional science[12]
    • Using low-cost single-board computers, such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi, as embedded systems with various applications

Drink mixing robot

DIY as a subculture could be said to have begun with the punk movement of the 1970s.[13] Instead of traditional means of bands reaching their audiences through large music labels, bands began recording, manufacturing albums and merchandise, booking their own tours, and creating opportunities for smaller bands to get wider recognition and gain cult status through repetitive low-cost DIY touring. The burgeoning zine movement took up coverage of and promotion of the underground punk scenes, and significantly altered the way fans interacted with musicians. Zines quickly branched off from being hand-made music magazines to become more personal; they quickly became one of the youth culture's gateways to DIY culture. This led to tutorial zines showing others how to make their own shirts, posters, zines, books, food, etc.

See also[edit]

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Do-It-Yourself

Look up do it yourself in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

(Video) AIM Group Training Backer Demo Video

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Do It Yourself (DIY).

References[edit]

  1. ^Wolf & McQuitty (2011). Understanding the Do-It-Yourself Consumer: DIY Motivation and Outcomes. Academy of Marketing Science Review
  2. ^Wolf & McQuitty (2011)
  3. ^Gelber (1997). Do-It-Yourself: Construction, Repairing and Maintaining Domestic Masculinity. American Quarterly. doi:10.1353/aq.1997.0007
  4. ^McKellar, S.; Sparke, P. (eds.). Interior Design and Identity.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  5. ^Newsletter of the Hellenic Society of Archaeometry, N.110, May 2010, p.84
  6. ^Ancient Building Came With DIY Instructions, Discovery News, Mon Apr 26, 2010
  7. ^Ancient Building Comes with Assembly Instructions, (photos), Discovery News
  8. ^Watts, Alan et al. 'Houseboat Summit' in The San Francisco Oracle, issue #7. San Francisco.
  9. ^Wall Street Journal, September 2007
  10. ^von Busch, O. Fashion-able, Hacktivism and engaged Fashion Design, PhD Thesis,School of Design and Crafts (HDK), Gothenburg. 2008, https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/17941/3/gupea_2077_17941_3.pdf.
  11. ^'DIY guide to screen printing t-shirts for cheap'. Retrieved 24 September 2007. Ever wonder where bands get their T-shirts made? Some of them probably go to the local screen printers and pay a bunch of money to have their shirts made up, then they have to turn around and sell them to you for a high price. Others go the smart route, and do it themselves. Here's a quick how-to on the cheap way to going about making T-shirts.
  12. ^Pearce, Joshua M. 2012. “Building Research Equipment with Free, Open-Source Hardware.” Science337 (6100): 1303–1304.open access
  13. ^'Triggs, Teal (2006) Scissors and Glue: Punk Fanzines and the Creation of a DIY Aesthetic, in 'Journal of Design History', vo. 19, n. 1, pp. 69-83'. Retrieved 24 September 2007. Yet, it remains within the subculture of punk music where the homemade, A4, stapled and photocopied fanzines of the late 1970s fostered the 'do-it-yourself' (DIY) production techniques of cut-n-paste letterforms, photocopied and collaged images, hand-scrawled and typewritten texts, to create a recognizable graphic design aesthetic.

Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Do_it_yourself&oldid=898015156'

FAQs

What does a phrase expressing the aim of a group or party mean? ›

The aim of a group or party must be. • The mission or purpose of the group - what business they are in. • The vision or direction they are headed - often expressed as the impact they want to have distinct from their purpose.

What is an aim of a group? ›

Aims: broad, general, long lasting goals that the group intends to adopt and keep indefinitely. Objectives: more specific and shorter-term targets intended to contribute to the groups' practical achievement of its aims.

How do you set goals for a committee? ›

  1. STEP 1: START WITH A CHAPTER GOAL. • Again, Committee goals should support the Chapter goals.
  2. STEP 2: MAKE IT SPECIFIC. • ...
  3. STEP 3: MAKE IT MEASURABLE. • ...
  4. STEP 4: MAKE IT ACHIEVEABLE AND CHALLENGING, BUT KEEP IT REALISTIC. • ...
  5. STEP 5: FINISH WITH A DEADLINE. •

What makes a good team? ›

Effective teams pursue a common outcome and have a common goal they want to reach. Healthy teams have mutual respect between members of the team and management. Plus, team members value one another's contributions and skill sets. Having a team allows people with different strengths to work together.

What are the 5 smart goals examples? ›

5. SMART goal example for increasing sales
  • Specific: I will learn new sales techniques to increase sales at work.
  • Measurable: My goal is to double my sales in four months.
  • Attainable: I've been a sales associate for two years now. ...
  • Relevant: I want to feel more confident at my job and learn new skills.
5 Aug 2022

How can a good team achieve goals and deliver results? ›

5 Ways to Help Your Team Achieve Better Results
  1. Establish company goals.
  2. Set strengths-based objectives.
  3. Develop a culture of collaboration.
  4. Use one-on-ones to coach teams.
  5. Create an ongoing feedback loop.
4 Apr 2018

How do you write goals and objectives? ›

Tips for writing good goals and objectives
  1. Tie your goals and objectives directly to your need statement.
  2. Include all relevant groups and individuals in your target population.
  3. Always allow plenty of time to accomplish the objectives.
  4. Do not confuse your outcome objectives for methods.

How do you write a smart goal? ›

How to write a SMART goal
  1. S for specific. A goal should be linked to one activity, thought, or idea.
  2. M for measurable. A goal should be something you can track and measure progress toward.
  3. A for actionable. There should be clear tasks or actions you can take to make progress toward a goal.
  4. R for realistic. ...
  5. T for timely.

What are the three functions of a group? ›

Functions of Groups

Generating new ideas or creative solutions to solve problems that require inputs from several people. Serving liaison or coordinating functions among several workgroups whose work is to some extent independent. Facilitating the implementation of complex decisions.

What are the reasons for joining a group? ›

Joining groups satisfies our need to belong, gain information and understanding through social comparison, define our sense of self and social identity, and achieve goals that might elude us if we worked alone.

What are four functions of groups? ›

We organize group roles into four categories — task, social-emotional, procedural, and individual. Task roles are those that help or hinder a group's ability to accomplish its goals.

What is a concept of a group? ›

Concept of Group:

Groups are made up of individuals. Two or more individuals, just together, do not form a group, the force of relationship is a must to make them into a group. For example, twenty persons going in a bus do not form a group, they remain a mere aggregation.

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